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Некоторые аспекты биологии русской выхухоли Desmana moschata в среднем течении р. Ока

Год: 2005

Авторы: Онуфреня А.С., Онуфреня М.В.

Издание: Роль заповедников лесной зоны в сохранении и изучении биологического разнообразия европейской части России. Труды Окского гос. заповедника. Вып. 24. Рязань. С. 92‒134.

Monitoring of Russiandesman Desmana moschata in Oka Reserve is conducted since 1938. The desman number strongly varies (139-2300 individuals). In connection with a degradation of flood-land pools in 1975-1980 in the Oka Reserve buffer zone a complex of biotechnical measures, directional on recovery of desman habitat by deepening of shallowing lakes was worked up and aproved. By outcome of these activities was the useful increase of desman number in controled terrain and guaranteed preservation of species on a high level at the most unfavorable hydroclimatic situations. The giving quarter methods of a personal ringing of desman are designed, the method of radiotelemetry tracking is tested also. Is established, that if there is stable fodder and protective conditions desman is inclined to the resident abode - 80.2% ringing mammals repeatedly are met in ringing places For adult females the legible attachment behavior to definite territories is detected, the area made which one 0.45-0.6 hectares. The small pools (up to 1.5 he) are taken, as a rule, by one monogynopaedium. The main part of the desman Oka population is comprised adults - by 66.3%. The lifetime of desman in majority makes 3-3.5 years, at the same time the single oc-currings of mammales in the age of 5-6 years are registered. The sexual structure of population is characterized by small predominance males - 52.6%. In an adult part of the population the difference in the ratio of sexes is expressed in the greater degree, than for yearlings (53.5 and 50.9% accordingly). Desman is capable to propagate all the year, but the vemal-summer-year’s and fall peaks of a breeding are most legibly expressed. The potential fertility of desman comprises, on the average, 5.2 (lim 3-7) young Mean litter, counted on embryos, estimates in 4.0, at caught from holes - 3.5. The gain of the Oka population last decades makes 105.1% to initial number, that testify to enough its high viability.